I am an organisational psychology researcher and educator with a specific focus on studying the role of identity and reputation within the fields of entrepreneurship, creativity, and enterprise education.
I am especially interested in how individuals, and in particular entrepreneurs, engage in innovative and creative processes within the technological and socio-cultural structures of digital platforms, including social media and online enterprise networks.
Research Interests: Social Media Research, Digital Identity, Social Identity, Reputation Management, Organizational Psychology, Organizational Development Evaluation
University of Nottingham
Horizon Doctoral Training Centre for Digital Economy Research, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) 2010 - 2014
Understanding Perceptions of Professional Risk and Digital Reputation Management Amongst Young Adult Users of Social Media [Thesis pending: supervised by Professor Claire O’Malley, School of Psychology and Dr Lee Martin, Nottingham University Business School].
Core Modules on PhD:
Research and Professional Skills, Individual and Group Interviews, Cognitive Ergonomics in Design, Introduction to Computer Programming, Ubiquitous Computing, Human-Computer Systems, Innovation and Technology Transfer, Exploring Science and Technology in Society, Contemporary Debates in Sociology.
SPSS (Advanced: descriptive, correlational, ANOVA/ANCOVA, multiple regression and principle components analyses; NVivo (Advanced: thematic and critical incident analyses, use of NCapture for capturing social media content); Qualtrics (Advanced: advanced use of survey design features, such as item/block randomisation and survey progression logic); AMOS (Intermediate: Structural Equation Modeling); C# Programming (Beginner: basic object-oriented programming tasks).
Additional Professional Training: Problem Exploration in Research, Getting Work Published, Undertaking Research In or With External Organisations, Becoming a High Performance Team Member, Report Writing for Business and Industry, Professional Business Networking, Writing an Impact Statement, Presentation Skills for Researchers, Time Management and Workload Organisation, Structural Equation Modeling.
Digital Humanities, Humanities, Arts, Science and Technology Alliance and Collaboratory (HASTAC) Research Internship 2012 - 2012
Hosted as a Research Intern at the Humanities, Arts, Science and Technology Alliance and Collaboratory (HASTAC) based at Duke University, United States, by Professor Cathy Davidson (English, Duke University) and Sheryl Grant (HASTAC).
Collaborated with HASTAC researchers on designing and submitting ethical approval for a research project evaluating the impact of learning for the large, international network of students imvolved in the HASTAC Scholars Program.
University of Nottingham
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Master's Degree 2006 - 2007
This British Psychological Society-accredited Occupational Psychology Master's Degree was completed with the Institute of Work, Health and Organisations (I-WHO), based at the University of Nottingham. Throughout the course I took several modules relating to aspects of organizational psychology, including employee relations and motivation, counselling and career development, organisational development and change, and occupational selection and assessment.
Through the course, I engaged in professional development for consultancy skills, in addition to completing my training in using the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and 16 Personality Factors psychometric tests.
My MSc thesis adopted a survey-based methodology to explore the relationship between different levels of employee commitment and counterproductive workplace behaviours in retail; for which I was awarded Outstanding Research Project by the University of Nottingham and contributed towards my overall award of a Distinction.
University of York
Psychology, Bachelor's Degree 2002 - 2005
This British Psychological Society-accredited Psychology BSc was completed with the School of Psychology at the University of York. Throughout the course I took many modules relating to aspects of psychological study, including cognitive, developmental, social, visual and abnormal psychology.
My BSc dissertation used an experimental design to explore the respective powers of implicit and explicit measures of aggression to predict aggressive behaviour when under the influence of alcohol, which in turn contributed towards my overall award of a 2.1.
Haydn Green Institute for Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Nottingham University Business School
Assistant Professor in Entrepreneurship & Innovation July 2016 - current
Assistant Professor in Entrepreneurship & Innovation, with a teaching focus on entrepreneurial creativity.
Module convenor for Creative Problem Solving (N14B50/N14G01) and co-convenor for Entrepreneurship & Creativity (N14T24) MSc modules.
Also teach, mentor and assess on the Entrepreneurship & Business (N11440) BSc and Entrepreneurship & Creativity (N14M90) MBA modules, in addition to lecturing on the Horizon CDT Advanced Research Methods and Ethics (G54ARM) PhD module.
As of February 2017, started as School Ethics Officer for the Nottingham University Business School.
The Open University
Organizational Development Research Consultant Aug 2010 - Jun 2014
Ongoing contract with The Open University (OU) to manage internal research projects commissioned by the department of Learning and Organizational Development. Responsible for the design, implementation, analysis and reporting of research projects using quantitative and qualitative methods that included surveys, semi-structured interviews and focus groups.
Academy of Management
Social Media Consultant Mar 2012 - Dec 2012
One-time contract with the US-based Academy of Management Learning & Education (AMLE) Journal to design and implement a coherent social media strategy for the publication. Responsible for providing a detailed strategy and guidelines report for a non-technical audience, designing and creating a consistent presence for the publication on Facebook and Twitter, and co-managing content publication via the platforms.
Learning & Organizational Development Project Officer Jan 2008 - Aug 2010
Led the project management of several large-scale internal research projects commissioned by the department of Learning and Organizational Development. Responsible for the design, implementation, analysis and reporting of the projects, using quantitative and qualitative methods that included surveys, semi-structured interviews and focus groups.
Developed relationships and collaborated with academic and professional services colleagues from a variety of backgrounds and levels across the organisation throughout the course of managing the research projects. Responsible for assessing, organising and deploying time, budgetary and human resources to the projects as required.
Co-designed and implemented a revised ‘Effective Feedback Skills’ professional development workshop for OU staff. Responsible for integrating the virtual world technology of Second Life into the workshop design, facilitating its use during the sessions, and co-designing, implementing and reporting evaluation studies of its impact on learning through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international conferences on learning and education.
Sales Advisor Jul 2005 - Aug 2006
Responsible for generating sales, advising customers, managing stock levels and supervising colleagues for this nationwide retailer of surf and snow-based equipment and high-street fashion based in York, UK.
Tom Browns Brasserie
Waiter/Bar Tender July 2000 - April 2004
Part- and full-time vacation role with responsibility for high quality customer service and staff supervision within a popular Nottinghamshire restaurant.
Book Chapter Publication
Carter, C.J., Martin, L. and O’Malley, C. (2014) “Understanding the Social Media Ecologies of Employees Within Higher Education Institutions: A UK-Based Case Study”. In “An Education in Facebook?”, M. Kent and T. Leaver (Eds), p. 217 – 227. New York: Routledge
Peachey, A., Broadribb, S., Carter, C. and Westrapp, F. (2009). “Second Life in the Open University: How the Virtual World Can Facilitate Learning for Staff and Students”. In “Higher Education in Virtual Worlds: Teaching and Learning in Second Life”. C. Wankel (Editor), p. 203 – 220. UK: Emerald.
Billsberry, J., Talbot, D. L., Nelson, P.C., Edwards, J.A., Godrich, S. G., Davidson, R.A.G. and Carter, C.J. (2010). Review of The People Make the Place: Dynamic Linkages Between Individuals and Organizations, D. B. Smith (Ed.), Personnel Psychology, 63 (2), pp. 479-508 [ABS Ranking: 4].
Broadribb, S.C. and Carter, C.J. (2009). Using Second Life in Human Resource Development. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), pp. 547–550. [ABS Ranking: 2].
Carter, C.J., Martin, L. and O’Malley (2015). “Digital Reputation Management and Social Media Ecologies,” Target journal: Journal of Management.
Carter, C.J., O’Malley, C. and Martin, L. (2015). “Impulsivity, The Big Five and Psychological Distance as Predictors of Professional Risk Perception upon Social Media,” Target journal: Journal of Applied Psychology.
Carter, C.J., Martin, L. and O’Malley, C. (2015). “Perceptions of Professional Risk Upon Social Media Across the Professional Transition”, Target journal: Journal of Vocational Behavior.
Conference Papers Presented
Carter, C.J., O’Malley, C. and Martin, L. (2014). “Measuring Digital Reputation Management Behaviour Upon Social Media”, Developmental Paper accepted for the British Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Belfast, UK.
Carter, C.J., O’Malley, C and Martin, L. (2013). “Whatever Social Recruiters Say I Am, That’s What I Am: Shifting from Impression to Reputation Management in the Study of Digital Identity,” ESRC Seminar Series on Digital Policy: Connectivity, Creativity and Rights, Glasgow, UK.
Carter, C.J., O’Malley, C. and Martin, L. (2013). “Developing a Scale to Measure Concern for Professional Reputation through Interaction with Social Media”, DE2013: Digital Open Conference, Manchester, UK.
Carter, C.J. (2013). “Social Media, All Grown Up”. Psychology Postgraduate Conference, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Carter, C.J., Martin, L. and O'Malley, C. (2012). "Social Media, the Organisation and Me: An Exploration of Identity Work by Employees in the Digital Age". Paper presented at the British Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Cardiff, UK.
Peachey, A., Carter, C.J. and Broadribb, S. (2010). "Living On The Edge: The Nexus Between Developers and Academics Working in Virtual Worlds". Paper presented at the International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace, New York City, NY, US.
Broadbribb, S.C., and Carter, C.J. (2008). “Exploring the Virtual Learning Cycle in Staff Development through the Lens of Experimental Design”. Paper presented at the Research and Learning in Virtual Environments (re:LIVE) Conference, Milton Keynes, UK.
Conference Posters Presented
Carter, C.J., O’Malley, C. and Martin, L. (2013). “Social Media, All Grown Up: Understanding the Promotion and Protection of Digital Personhood”. Poster presented at the Horizon Digital Economy Conference, Nottingham, UK.
Carter, C.J. (2012). “Promoting and Protecting Digital Personhood”. Poster presented at Horizon Research Conference, Alea Casino, Nottingham, UK.
Carter, C.J., and Broadribb, S.C. (2009). “Exploring Virtual Worlds as a Tool for Management Development”. Professional Development Workshop (PDW) at the British Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Brighton, UK.
Broadbribb, S.C., and Carter, C.J. (2009). “Exploring virtual worlds as a tool for management education & development”. Professional Developmental Workshop (PDW) at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, US.
Carter, C.J. (August 19 2014). "New generation is happy for employers to monitor them on social media", The Conversation (UK); article also featured on Slate (US) as part of the FutureTense series)
Carter, C.J. (April 22 2014). “Could Your Social Media Posts Be Jeopardizing Your Job Hunt?”, University of Nottingham Careers Service.
Carter, C.J. (September 9 2013) “Your Future Boss Knows What You Did This Summer: It’s Online", The Conversation (UK).
I am committed to providing opportunities for learning about digital reputation management and social media, having developed a carefully crafted online presence in addressing the topic across a variety of blogging and social networking platforms. I have developed an extensive knowledge of accessible digital reputation management tools and frequently use social media to inform followers about them, in addition to sharing articles, reports and findings from my own research.
I have experience of delivering content-driven, teacher-centred models of lecturing through guest lectures and presentations to Psychology, Organisational Behaviour and Human-Computer Interaction-based research communities, as well as facilitating interactive student-centred, learning-driven models of learning through undergraduate tutoring and professional developmental workshops. Through these sessions I have enhanced the student experience through encouraging student-lecturer interaction, developing critical and creative thinking skills through group discussion and personal reflection, and providing timely, critical feedback.
Internal Speaker, 2013 (Postgraduate/Research: 15 researchers): Developed presentation on the importance of reputation management and digital personhood within the Digital Economy. Delivered to the Horizon Human Behaviour Research Group.
Internal Speaker, 2012 (Postgraduate: 20 students): Developed presentation on how employees within the Digital Economy can use social media to project a professionally ‘appropriate’ social identity, and the associated challenges in doing so. Delivered to Horizon CDT PhD students as part of the ‘Show and Tell’ series.
Applied Research Guest Speaker, 2010 (Postgraduate: 30 students): Developed guest lecture reflecting on the use of the Second Life virtual world platform for supporting staff development within The Open University. Delivered ‘in-world’ (i.e. in Second Life) to OU postgraduate students and members of the general public interested in Second Life.
Industry Guest Speaker, 2010 (Sixth Form: 30 students): Developed a guest lecture on the use of social media for branding and grass-roots marketing of local music. Delivered to Sixth Form students at Colonel Frank Seely School, Calverton, Nottinghamshire.
Entrepreneurship and Business Module (N11440), 2013 (Undergraduate: 600 students): Tutored groups of undergraduates studying on the prestigious Entrepreneurship and Business module at Nottingham University Business School (NUBS). Responsible for supporting students in their engagement with the structured ‘Ingenuity and Creativity’ process of problem identification and creative thinking, and preparation for the delivery of their innovative solution on the final presentation day.
Skills and Experience
The following is a summary of what I feel are the key strengths of my skills and experience to date:
Qualifications and Education
Interdisciplinary Research: My PhD thesis draws upon the disciplines of Social Psychology, Human-Computer Interaction and Organisational Behaviour to explore how and why young adults engage in digital reputation management behaviour upon social media prior to, during and following the professional transition into employment.
Timely Research: Given the increasingly prevalent exploitation of personal data on social media by organisations for the purposes of employee recruitment and monitoring, I believe this area of research would complement existing strands of research in a Digital Economy or Organizational Psychology department.
Qualifications from Russell Group Institutions: I hold a degree in Psychology from the University of York and was awarded a Distinction for my Masters degree in Occupational Psychology at the Institute for Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham.
Skills, Training and Experience
Oral and Written Communication: I have demonstrated an excellent standard of oral and written communication skills through the design and delivery of presentations, posters and workshops to internal and external audiences, peer-reviewed publication of research findings in book chapters, a journal article and conference proceedings, and online articles for The Conversation (UK) and the University of Nottingham’s Careers Blog.
Building Relationships: I have consistently demonstrated an ability to build relationships and collaborate with others; both internally with postgraduate students on group projects and my PhD supervisors through collaborating on submissions for publication, and externally, including researchers at Duke University and organisational ‘gatekeepers’ with whom I collaborated with to recruit research participants.
Mixed Methods Research: I have several years of experience in using a broad range of quantitative and qualitative methods, including online surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, think-aloud protocols, vignettes and document analysis. Where appropriate, I have adapted methods to encourage participants to reflect on their digital reputation, for instance through providing hands-on experience of existing digital reputation management systems in one of my PhD interview studies.
Technical Skills: Throughout my PhD I have demonstrated a high level of competency in using a range of technical software, including Qualtrics for designing and managing online surveys, SPSS for conducting descriptive and inferential statistical analyses, and NVivo for conducting thematic and critical incident analyses on substantial qualitative datasets.
Social Media Research: I am passionate about fostering learning about digital reputation management in social media users. I am an avid user of blogging and social networking platforms to share links to informative articles with students and careers professionals. I have also presented on the topic to various research communities across the University, and have nurtured links with the University’s Careers Service Advisers in order to share research materials and links that might be useful for students.
Teaching: I am highly enthusiastic about teaching, having successfully tutored multiple groups of undergraduate students through the ‘Ingenuity and Creativity’ process of problem identification and creative thinking that formed part of Nottingham University Business School’s Entrepreneurship and Business module. I also have experience of designing and delivering professional development workshops for staff within a Higher Education Institution.
Managing Resources: Throughout my PhD research and industry experience, I have effectively assessed, organised and deployed a range of resources. This has included adhering to realistic time plans, managing personal expenditure budgets and recruiting the support of others on research projects where required. I have also successfully bidded for internal research funding from the University of Nottingham's highly competitive Building Experience and Skills Travel Scholarship (BESTS) fund.
Word, Excel & Powerpoint (Advanced)
Critical Incident Technique
Multiple Regression Analysis
Critical Incident Technique
Social Psychological Experiments
Extensive knowledge of Personal Branding and Digital Reputation Management Sites (e.g. Klout, Kred, Reppler, Persona, Secure.Me, BrandMe, etc)
Applied Social Psychological Research
Extensive experience of conducting both quantitative and qualitative research across a range of organisations and sectors.
Honors & Awards
Building Experience and Skills Travel Scholarship (BESTS)
Awarded a £680 Building Experience and Skills Travel Scholarship (BESTS) by the University of Nottingham’s Graduate School to support travel to the US for a Research Internship with HASTAC, Duke University. This was matched with a further £918 from the Horizon Digital Economy Research Institute.
Outstanding Reviewer Award - Organizational Psychology Special Interest Group
Award for consistent high quality in reviewing papers submitted to the Organizational Psychology track of the British Academy of Management 2010 Annual Meeting.
Outstanding Reviewer Award - Organizational Psychology Special Interest Group
Award for consistent high quality in reviewing papers submitted to the Organizational Psychology track of the British Academy of Management 2009 Annual Meeting.
Notable Work Contribution
Discretionary award of £1,000 by the Human Resources Department at The Open University for the successful management of a large-scale evaluation project on management development activity across the organisation.
Outstanding Applied Research Project (ARP)
Discretionary award of £250 by the University of Nottingham for the empirical research carried out for my Occupational Psychology MSc dissertation with the Institute of Work, Health and Organisations.
Shortlisted for Serious Games Solution of the Year Award
Shortlisted nomination for the World of Learning Awards, based on use of Second Life for staff development at the OU.